Tourism in Spain

The most popular destinations in spain, development of the tourism sector in spain from 1995 to 2021.

Tourists per year in Spain

Revenues from tourism

Tourism receipts in Spain per year

All data for Spain in detail

Comparison: quality of life

Next stop for Spanish tourism excellence: Sustainability

Tourism is vital to Spain. The country’s natural attractions and cultural assets draw crowds from around the world—making many of its communities reliant on tourism. Pre-pandemic, Spain was the second-largest tourism destination in the world, drawing 84 million visitors in 2019 who brought over €92 billion in revenue. 1 “Spain: Economic and infrastructural situation,” Climate ADAPT, Climate ADAPT website, updated March 15, 2021; “Satellite account of tourism in Spain,” INE, January 7, 2022. Travel and tourism accounted for around 14 percent of Spain’s total GDP and provided one in eight jobs. In some communities, tourism contributed to over 20 percent of all economic activity . While these figures plummeted during COVID-19, travel and tourism is recovering and Spain remains dependent on success in tourism.

Spain’s tourism sector now faces new challenges. Fears of a global recession, and geo-political uncertainty, could put pressure on tourism. And as travel resumes in an era of high inflation, Spain will likely face stiff competition from several destinations that also offer sunshine and coastal vacations at similar, or lower, prices—Egypt, Greece, and Turkey, for example.

The sector also faces physical and economic threats due to climate change. The Mediterranean basin is getting warmer: the number of days above 37°C in southern Spain is expected to double by 2050 and rising temperatures increase the risk of drought, water stress, wildfires, and floods. 2 “ A Mediterranean basin without a Mediterranean climate? ” McKinsey Global Institute, May 2020. Extreme weather is already evident as the pre-summer season of 2022 saw temperatures climb above 40°C in Seville. 3 “Spain is hit by the hottest pre-summer heatwave for 20 years as temperatures climb to 43 C,” Euronews, June 14, 2022. An increase in the number of “too hot” days could discourage tourism, particularly in peak season. For instance, a 2022 survey by a travel insurance company found that 65 percent of UK holiday makers thought Spain would be too hot to visit by 2027. 4 Charlotte Elton, “Spain, Greece, Turkey: Most Brits think holiday hotspots will be ‘too hot’ to visit by 2027,” Euronews, September 9, 2022.

Of course, Spain’s tourism sector cannot combat climate change alone. But this backdrop underscores the urgency to act. Globally, tourism is a significant contributor to emissions, and Spain can play a role in emissions reduction. In 2019, tourism was responsible for about 11 percent of greenhouse gas emissions, worldwide. Of this, the largest emissions came from domestic and international tourism in China, India, and the United States. Compared to these top three, Spain ranks at number 16 for emissions from tourism. 5 Sustainability in travel 2021: Quantifying tourism emissions for destinations, Skift Research, June 2021. Considering the size of Spain’s tourism industry, the country compares well against these destinations, but there is room for improvement.

Spain can set itself apart by prioritizing sustainability, including environmental issues such as water usage, plastic waste, carbon emissions, and social issues such as how tourism affects local communities. Globally, travelers are becoming more aware and are seeking out vacations with less impact on the environment and on local communities. Sustainability could become a key differentiator.

Furthermore, sustainable travel could draw discerning premium travelers who will likely be willing to pay for offerings that uphold their values. But efforts to draw these travelers will need to extend beyond marketing and involve real operational changes. Gen Z travelers, in particular, don’t care what tourism businesses say about their sustainability efforts, they want to see it in practice. 6 Dawit Habtemariam, “Tourism’s sustainability pitch needs to be more subtle for Gen Z,” Skift, March 8, 2023. Gen Zs, who typically have a heightened awareness of climate change, are looking for eco-friendly accommodation options. Skift found that 38 percent of Gen Zs across the world would consider staying in green accommodation on their next holiday, compared to the 33 percent response rate of those over 25. 7 Mary Ann Ha, “Meeting the high expectations of the Gen Z traveler: New report,” Skift, June 21, 2022.

This article examines the key aspects of sustainability that are relevant to travel and tourism and suggests ways in which stakeholders across Spain’s tourism sector could prioritize and invest in sustainable offerings. Such actions can ensure that this important sector remains competitive, and help to safeguard its assets for future generations.

Spain is a leading destination, but faces strong competition and a tough operating environment

The physical and economic consequences of climate change, global economic environment, strong competition, and changing consumer preferences all put pressure on the sector. Worldwide, rising inflation could prompt consumers to cut back on travel, or “downtrade” to cheaper destinations. While “revenge travel” boosted tourism as travel restrictions eased, the threat of a looming recession could dampen appetite for travel.

European travelers want to visit beaches that are conveniently close, warm, and affordable. The largest outbound markets for sun and beach tourism include Germany, the United Kingdom, Scandinavia, the Netherlands, Belgium, and Austria. Spain is a popular destination for sun and sand, accounting for almost one-third of international overnight trips to the EU’s coastal areas in 2021. 8 Eurostat dataset: Nights spent at tourist accommodation establishments by degree of urbanization and coastal/non-coastal area, accessed January 18, 2022. But, Spain competes with other destinations, in the Mediterranean and beyond, that cater to these tourists.

Even if overall demand falls, select locations across the country are at risk of over-tourism. Pre-COVID-19, a World Economic Forum report placed Spain first out of 140 competitive countries in travel and tourism. 9 The Travel & Tourism competitiveness report 2019, World Economic Forum, September 4, 2019. The report warned that one-third of international arrivals are concentrated in the top ten countries, and this concentration can lead to severe pressure, and negative effects, on tourism infrastructure and services as well as local populations.

Several Spanish beach destinations have struggled with unruly visitors, and some cities have experienced an anti-tourism backlash in the wake of overcrowding. 10 “Irish tourist seriously injured in fall from balcony in Spain,” Murcia Today, May 5, 2022; “Why Barcelona locals really hate tourists,” Independent , August 12, 2017. Authorities have stepped in to manage the situation in specific locations. For example, in 2020, Spain introduced new laws to limit alcohol consumption at all-inclusive resorts in the Balearic Islands. 11 “Britons limited to six drinks a day in Ibiza and Majorca on all-inclusive breaks,” Evening Standard, April 29, 2022. And several cities, including Madrid and Barcelona, introduced stricter regulations for private short-term accommodation rental to tourists to protect the long-term housing market. 12 “Barcelona wants to ban renting private rooms to tourists,” Bloomberg, February 5, 2021; “Barcelona takes on Airbnb,” New York Times, September 22, 2021.

These efforts could make tourism more sustainable for the long term. But the industry itself may be adding to conditions that make tourism unsustainable for the local workforce. Seasonality is a major hurdle in this regard. The country’s core tourism destinations have high seasonality, leading to peaks and troughs in employment. Unemployment reaches around 20 percent in the low season (exhibit).

A focus on all aspects of sustainability can improve the sector’s (and the country’s) perception and reputation—and ultimately affect tourists’ willingness to visit.

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What sustainability means for travel and tourism.

Sustainability is becoming increasingly important to travelers. In 2022, found that more than 70 percent of global travelers intend to travel more sustainably over the next year (a 10 percent increase on the company’s 2021 survey) and 35 percent said that the sustainability efforts of accommodation and transport providers play a strong role in their booking decisions. 13 Sustainable travel report 2022 ,

But what does sustainable travel mean? According to the World Tourism Organization, sustainable tourism addresses the needs of visitors, the industry, the environment, and host communities based on three interdependent factors: 1) social sustainability (respect for the socio-cultural authenticity of host communities, support for local businesses, and levels of tourism that are acceptable to local communities); 2) environmental sustainability (measures to reduce environmental impact and preserve natural heritage and biodiversity); and 3) economic sustainability (business models that achieve economic growth without negatively impacting social, environmental, or cultural aspects of communities). 14 “Sustainable development,” UNWTO website.

By improving environmental and social sustainability, organizations across the travel and tourism value chain can strengthen their business models and reach economic sustainability. Without considering social and environmental factors, economic viability may be difficult to reach or maintain in the long term.

Several countries are taking an integrated approach to tourism development with the goal of becoming more resilient, sustainable, and inclusive. In some instances, this means adapting a country’s tourism offerings to reduce seasonality and the strain it puts on local infrastructure and resources. Increasing visitors in off-peak periods can lead to year-round jobs and businesses. For example, Slovenia has committed to 20 projects to transform mountain destinations into year-round resorts for active holidays outside of ski season. 15 OECD tourism trends and policies 2022, OECD. And Norway’s “Norway all year round” plan aims to spread tourist traffic across several locations and seasons. The plan intentionally does not market Norway as a cruise destination and aims to attract travelers in source markets who are available to travel all year round, and have the means to do so. 16 “Making Norway an all-year-round destination,” Sustainable Tourism in the North website.

Transforming the tourism workforce

New Zealand’s Tourism Industry Transformation Plan begins with a focus on the workforce as the core element of developing a thriving tourism system. The plan paves the way for better experiences for those within the industry as a way to deliver better outcomes for employees, businesses, and visitors.

The plan puts forward new ways of working, for instance, to improve employment standards and practices relating to decent pay and career progression, and to provide fit-for-purpose education and training.

Another innovation “embrace the flux, enable the flex” aims to reframe the tourism industry’s attitude to seasonality. Rather than the peaks and troughs being a barrier to attracting and retaining employees, the industry can use peaks and troughs to its advantage to upskill people, provide consistent employment, and reduce barriers to people holding multiple jobs across the year and across sectors.

One of the initiatives involves collaboration between tourism and conservation employers to help employees maintain stable employment, remain in regions with limited employment offerings, and support the wider community. It also enables tourism employees to gain local conservation knowledge and skills, and those workers can then share their expertise and insights with visitors and increase the value of the tourism offering in the region.

Source: Tourism Industry Transformation Plan: He Mahere Tiaki Kaimahi, Better Work Action Plan, New Zealand Government, March 2023.

Other country-level social and economic sustainability initiatives focus on the tourism workforce. New Zealand recently launched a transformation plan aimed at improving conditions for those who work in the tourism industry, as a basis for transforming the entire sector (see sidebar “Transforming the tourism workforce”).

Travel businesses have also taken steps to reduce the effects of seasonality on the local workforce, for example, by sharing staff. In Geneva, the Ice Castles attraction that has a four-month winter season shares staff with the Lake Geneva Ziplines & Adventures company. This provides extra work and helps to retain staff at both businesses each season. 17 Nathan Andrew, “How to maximize the value of tourism shoulder season,” Blend, August 2021.

The social, environmental, and economic aspects of sustainability are intertwined in global consumers’ perspectives. respondents around the world said they chose sustainable options because they wanted to reduce their impact on the environment, have a more locally relevant experience, or believed that sustainable properties treat communities better. 18 Sustainable travel report 2022 ,

Spanish respondents held similar views on sustainability as their global counterparts—they are concerned about waste and energy consumption, and 79 percent intend to walk, cycle, or take public transport during future trips. Respect for local communities is important, too, as 68 percent want authentic experiences that are representative of local culture. In addition, 68 percent will go out of their way to avoid popular destinations and attractions to avoid contributing to overcrowding. 19 Sustainable travel report Spain 2022 (Informe Global Sobre Turismo Sostenible 2022)

Considering that in 2019, 45 percent of tourism spend in Spain was domestic, Spanish traveler sentiment is particularly relevant to Spain’s tourism offerings, for locals and international tourists alike. 20 Global travel service data from Oxford Economics.

Globally, hospitality providers may be at risk of not meeting customer expectations around sustainability as there is a gap between what consumers want and what exists in the market. An earlier survey spanning 30 countries—Spain being one of them—found that one-quarter of accommodation providers had not implemented any sustainability measures; and for those that had, only one-third actively informed their customers about the measures they had taken—and this usually happened at check-out. 21 Sustainable travel report 2021,

Taking action on sustainability (and actively communicating what has been done) could bridge this gap, attract new travelers, and help Spain’s tourism sector to flourish while doing good for local communities and the planet. Much of McKinsey’s research on sustainability shows that doing well and doing good are not mutually exclusive —these actions reinforce each other. Industry-wide commitment to sustainability could help to differentiate the sector, and respond to consumer needs, thereby increasing the chances of economic sustainability.

How sustainability-related initiatives provide a unique experience

Destinations around the world have demonstrated that environmental and social sustainability initiatives can protect resources and promote local communities—and become flagship projects that garner international recognition and draw visitors looking for meaningful and authentic travel experiences.

  • A Dutch partnership between national NGOs and local communities created a new way to maintain beaches without threatening biodiversity. The initiative involved locals and tourists and led to a new certification method, a first around the world. In 2021, Goeree-Overflakkee was awarded the first “Green Beach” certification, and in 2022 became known as the cleanest beach in the Netherlands. 1 “Green Destinations top 100 stories 2022: Together for a new standard in biodiverse green beaches,” Green Destinations website.
  • The Greek region of Attica was named the world’s leading sustainable tourism destination in 2022 by the World Travel Awards based on its cultural wealth, natural beauty, modern infrastructure, and the comprehensive plan implemented by the region in order to turn Attica into the first “green” region. 2 “World's leading sustainable tourism destination 2022,” World Travel Awards website.
  • Visitors to Hiiumaa island in Estonia usually rely on private cars to visit key attractions. To provide visitors with a lower-carbon mobility option and a more authentic, nature-based experience of the island, a local entrepreneur created an electric bicycle network (including solar power loading stations) which has become popular with tourists and locals. 3 “Green Destinations top 100 stories 2022: Carbon neutral and local, new opportunities in tourism and public transport in Estonian’s green island Hiiumaa,” Green Destinations website.
  • In Istria, Croatia, around half of tourists stay in small, private accommodation. Eco Domus is a certification program that teaches private accommodation providers sustainability practices on topics including water, food, health, and light and noise pollution. The aim is to provide better quality, and more sustainable, local offerings. 4 “Green Destinations top 100 stories 2022: Eco Domus, eco-friendly accommodation,” Green Destinations website.

Of course, taking action requires time, resources, and investment. Individual hotels or tourism businesses may have little incentive to redefine core offerings or invest in infrastructure to demonstrate that sustainability is important to them. But businesses that begin to differentiate themselves could reap the benefits. Many destinations in the region provide examples of how sustainable offerings can become a drawcard for visitors, and earn international acclaim and prestige (see sidebar “How sustainability-related initiatives can offer tourists a unique experience”).

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The path toward eco-friendly travel in China

Actions to advance sustainability across spain’s tourism sector are emerging.

Spain developed a Sustainable Tourism Strategy 2030, a national agenda to help the tourism sector address medium- and long-term challenges including socioeconomic and environmental sustainability. 22 “Sustainable tourism strategy of Spain 2030,” Spain’s Ministry of Industry, Trade and Tourism. Even though this national sustainability strategy is in place, there are limited mechanisms to help small businesses partake and contribute. This is particularly challenging as small- and micro-sized businesses make up the vast majority of all businesses in the country’s tourism sector. According to Statista, micro-size businesses account for around 92 percent of Spain’s travel, tourism, and hospitality businesses. Small businesses make up just over 7 percent, and medium and large businesses account for the remaining half a percent. 23 Statista, Distribution of businesses in the tourism sector in Spain in 2020 by size, June 2022.

This fragmentation can halt progress and collective action, for instance in emissions reduction. Spain’s large hospitality providers are making efforts to reduce carbon emissions, and many are pioneers in the field: Melia opened Menorca’s first carbon-neutral luxury hotel in 2022, showcasing carbon-neutral operations, “intelligent” energy-efficient buildings, and circular models for water resources. 24 Tom Otley, “Melia opens Villa Le Blanc By Gran Meliá in Menorca, Spain,” Business Traveller, July 20, 2022. Iberostar has committed to becoming carbon neutral by 2030—a target that is 20 years ahead of many other international hospitality brands. 25 “Iberostar will be carbon neutral by 2030, 20 years ahead of the industry’s global target,” Iberostar press release, November 8, 2022.

In general, smaller and medium-size providers’ goals and targets are less ambitious than those of international peers, presumably because the economic benefits of such actions are unclear, or they may fear first-mover disadvantages like higher costs. Various Spanish hotel chains have committed to reducing emissions by 20 to 35 percent, with timelines ranging from 2030 to 2035. By comparison, many international brands have committed to net zero by 2050 and have strict measures in place to achieve this.

According to the Greenview Hotel Footprinting Tool, which calculates the carbon footprint of a hotel stay anywhere in the world, Spain is among the best-performing countries in terms of low-carbon room footprint and meeting footprint. While this tool points to a strong focus on water-, waste- and emissions-reduction in Spanish hotels, it is difficult to assess what actions many smaller hotels and other tourism businesses are taking on the sustainability front.

Sustainable tourism in Valencia

Valencia claims to be the first city in the world to track the carbon footprint of all tourism activities in the city and has committed to achieving carbon-neutral tourism by 2025. 1 “Valencia becomes the first city in the world to verify and certify the carbon footprint of its tourist activity,” Valencia Tourism official website, July 10, 2020.

Valencia’s official tourism website features sustainable tourism as a key element and makes sustainable offerings visible. For instance, the website encourages visitors to reduce emissions by taking public transport or traveling by bicycle and to support the local economy by shopping at smaller, local stores. It also offers tips on how to be a “responsible tourist who is committed to the environment at all times” such as using energy and water sparingly, recycling, reducing plastic, and respecting local residents.

In this way, the city has positioned itself as “the city taking care of the planet” and made sustainability its differentiating factor.

Even though there may not be concerted and unified action on social and environmental sustainability across the sector, success stories exist of initiatives being put in place that make sustainability a key differentiator (see sidebar “Sustainable tourism in Valencia”). Sector-wide efforts could increase investment into sustainable offerings, make these more visible to tourists, and ultimately position Spain as the destination of choice for sustainable travel.

How Spain could become a sustainable destination of choice

Individual travel and tourism businesses’ environmental and social sustainability efforts need to achieve critical mass if Spain is to become known as a leading destination for sustainability-conscious travelers. These actions are also vital to preserve the sector’s economic sustainability. Collective and concerted action is required to build momentum. All stakeholders have a role to play in addressing the sector’s rationale for action, setting a clear course, and developing the support structure to achieve it.

Identify the value at stake. The sector could take a high-level view to evaluate the status quo, benchmark where Spain could be, and quantify the costs and benefits of prioritizing sustainability throughout the sector, at scale. All stakeholders including policy makers, government, and industry could jointly develop a sustainable travel concept for the sector with a clearly articulated justification for action.

Costa Rica provides an example of a national tourism strategy focused on sustainability. The industry is aligned with national objectives to protect the country’s forests and biodiversity. National parks, nature reserves, and protected areas make up around one-quarter of Costa Rican territory and the sector promotes ecotourism and sustainable offerings that support the conservation of these areas. 26 “Costa Rica, a country committed to the environment,” Aquae Fundacion, July 6, 2021.

Spain’s stakeholders could also agree on industry-wide standards, as having these in place would likely accelerate the transition to sustainable tourism. Standards that align the motivations of different stakeholders and take into account the interests of all parties have a greater chance of adoption. For example, including mandatory sustainability criteria in the hotel star rating system could bring the motivations of hotel owners and operators into alignment. 27 “The path toward eco-friendly travel in China,” McKinsey, March 14, 2023. Setting unified sector sustainability targets could also boost the credibility of sustainability claims or commitments made by individual businesses.

Define a strategy. This includes establishing initiatives to address specific concerns such as decarbonization, water usage, waste management, or overcrowding and setting targets and practical actions to achieve them. For instance, one initiative in Costa Rica—as part of its conservation effort—is a ban on single-use plastic in national parks, biological reserves, and national monuments. 28 “Costa Rica, a country committed to the environment,” Aquae Fundacion, July 6, 2021.

In another example, Iceland set a strategy to reduce seasonality—a long-standing challenge for Icelandic tourism. In 2010, close to half of travelers visited the country during the summer months of June, July, or August. The travel industry, with support from the government and others, launched an international marketing campaign to promote Iceland as a year-round destination. Winter activities such as viewing the Northern lights, snowmobiling, and glacial treks became popular with visitors. Between 2010 and 2019 the share of tourists that visited in summer fell from around 50 to 34 percent, while tourist arrivals continued to grow. 29 Icelandic Tourist Board, Isavia, visitor departure statistics.

Once the strategic direction is set, sector-wide initiatives can be put in place. In New Zealand, a collaborative and concerted effort involving public and private organizations gave rise to the Tiaki Promise, a pledge that encourages visitors to take care of the country’s natural resources: “While traveling in New Zealand, I will care for land, sea, and nature, treading lightly and leaving no trace; travel safely, showing care and consideration for all; and respect culture, traveling with an open heart and mind.” One collaborator in the initiative, Air New Zealand, released an in-flight safety video that introduced the promise to travelers. 30 Kresentia Madina “The Tiaki Promise encourages tourists to care for New Zealand’s nature,” Green Network, August 26, 2022.

It is also important to rank individual measures to address challenges to ensure that competing priorities do not hinder progress. Collective action will have the most impact if all stakeholders are committed to the same issues.

Many travel and tourism businesses across the world have developed and successfully marketed sustainable products and services, such as low-impact tourist offerings that are less harmful to the environment or local communities. In fact, many travel guides publish editions dedicated to sustainable offerings. 31 Examples include Fodor’s Green Travel: The world’s best eco-lodges and earth-friendly hotels and Lonely Planet’s The sustainable travel handbook . Spain’s tourism providers could follow suit. And the sector could make travelers more aware of existing sustainable travel options through communications campaigns to draw sustainability-conscious travelers from across the globe.

Travel and tourism businesses could also extend sustainability efforts across their value chains. Examples include working with suppliers to ensure linen and towels are sustainably produced, procuring energy-efficient equipment, or engaging local communities by sourcing local food suppliers. There are also opportunities for businesses to collaborate and design sustainable offerings that combine products and services, such as sustainability-focused tours featuring carbon-neutral accommodation, electric ground transportation, and trips to local businesses.

Globally, hotel chains have partnered with sustainability-related businesses or action groups to advance their own sustainability initiatives. These actions also help to strengthen the hotel’s brand and reputation for sustainability consciousness. For instance, the luxury hotel, resort, and spa operator Six Senses partnered with the United States Coalition on Sustainability and the action platform SustainChain in an initiative to remove single-use and disposable plastics from its operations. 32 “Six Senses is the first hospitality brand to partner with the United States Coalition on Sustainability and SustainChain,” Six Senses press release, April 26, 2021. And as part of its pathway to net zero, the Radisson Hotel Group partnered with Ecovadis, a sustainability ratings provider, in a collaboration that aims to extend the EcoVadis rating to the group’s global supply chain. 33 “Radisson Hotel Group increases focus on supply chain sustainability; announces partnership with Ecovadis,” Radisson Hotel Group press release, December 16, 2021.

Spanish tourism and hospitality providers might consider similar collaborative partnerships and initiatives to build momentum for industry-wide action and raise global travelers’ awareness that Spain is committed to sustainability.

Provide guidelines and support. Smaller businesses may lack the knowledge or resources necessary to act on sustainability. Actions could be taken to bridge knowledge gaps and secure funding, at government or industry association level. Funding programs, incentive schemes, or financial instruments can accelerate adoption of sustainable solutions, especially for smaller businesses. For example, South Africa’s Green Tourism Incentive Program targets small tourism businesses like lodges and guest houses. The program funds water- and energy-efficiency assessments and recommends the optimum green solution for the business. The bulk of the cost to implement the solution is also funded by the program. 34 “The Green Tourism Incentive Programme,” Industrial Development Corporation, October 4, 2021.

The industry could also draw on available resources and convene stakeholders to share knowledge and expertise. For instance, the World Tourism Organization provides resources and guidelines for building a circular economy, reducing food waste, and tackling plastic pollution. 35 “Sustainable development,” UNWTO website.

Regulation could be put in place to support change. Regions or cities could look to establish regulations that ensure tourism activity is environmentally and socially sustainable. Progress has been made in this regard, as the Law on Circularity and Sustainability in Tourism, approved by Parliament in May 2022, made the Balearic Islands the first sustainable destination by law. 36 “Balearic Islands, sustainable tourism is now a law,” Excellence Magazine, June 21, 2022. This regulation protects seasonal tourism workers, considers local residents’ quality of life (for instance by blocking an increase in the number of beds for the next four years), reduces waste, and protects natural resources. It will also introduce a hotel classification system based on the concrete actions taken to promote sustainable tourism.

Regulatory bodies and industry associations could also support business owners with guidance, encourage implementation through incentives, and enforce regulations through penalties for non-compliance.

Spain’s tourism sector has an opportunity to further develop existing sustainability efforts, thereby protecting the future of the sector. A sector-wide focus on environmental and social sustainability can also act as a key differentiator and draw visitors who are consciously trying to travel more responsibly. Furthermore, all stakeholders could benefit if existing initiatives, and new investments, are made more visible and attractive to tourists.

Javier Caballero is a partner in McKinsey’s Madrid office, Margaux Constantin is a partner in the Dubai office, Steffen Köpke is a capabilities and insights expert in the Düsseldorf office, and Daniel Riefer is a partner in the Munich office.

The authors wish to thank Lisa Kropacek for their contribution to this article.

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evolution of tourism in spain

Tourism and Leisure

Spain, a world leader in tourism .

Spain leads the world in tourism. Since 2015 it has ranked in the top 3 on the World Economic Forum (WEF) podium, which awards the most competitive countries in the tourism industry from among 119 economies.

Spain  2 nd  /119

Travel&Tourism Development Index, 2024

Gráfico de la evaluación de España

Spain has broken its record in number of international visitors: thanks to the more than 85 million tourists arriving in Spain, every year it is recognized as the second most visited country in the world, after France. The United States and Italy follow.

Spain's success in the tourism industry is due especially to its rich cultural and natural attractions, but also to its exceptional infrastructures and services , tourism policy, an enabling operating environment and sustainability efforts. These are the five key points that the WEF considers essential to having a competitive advantage over other countries in tourism.

The tourism industry is an important engine of the Spanish economy and employment (2.8 million jobs). The strong public policies backing the industry, with public-private collaboration, and a clear orientation towards a sustainable and quality tourism model, ensure that about half of the tourism industry’s revenues come from international visitors (tourists spend around 186 billion euros).

Catalonia, the Canary Islands, the Balearic Islands, Andalusia and the Community of Valencia are the Spanish regions that welcome the most tourists. 

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Why invest in the tourism and leisure industry in Spain?

Spain upholds its position year after year in competitiveness and demonstrates that this industry offers great investment opportunities.  


Second country in the world by number of visitors.

According to the World Economic Forum, Spain is second in the Travel + Tourism Development Index.

5th country in the world in UNESCO World Heritage Sites (50 sites). Historic cities, outstanding monuments and museums. 

With 53 designated Natural Areas and Natural Spaces, UNESCO declares Spain to be the country with the highest number of Biosphere Reserves in the world, followed by the United States, Russia and China.

More than 300 days of sun a year and over 2,000 km of green slopes; various ski facilities; rural activities; wellness. Spain is distinguished for the number of its  beaches awarded the Blue Flag eco-label, compared to other countries like Greece and Turkey. 

The exceptional quality and variety of Spanish gastronomy is world renowned

It has an outstanding and modern public health system with very high standards.

Infrastructures. High-level land, rail and air connectivity.Spain holds a leading position in digital infrastructures according to the European DESI Index 2023 and it is the first country in at least 100 Mbps broadband take-up.

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Cultural heritage tourism, health tourism and gastronomic tourism

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MICE Tourism


One of the best sources for business opportunities is digital transformation in the tourism industry. It is based around four mainstays: cloud solutions, mobile devices, the internet of things (IoT) and the sharing economy.

Cloud solutions

  •  Developing new business models
  • e-Commerce integration solutions and advanced customer relationship management (ERP, CRM)
  • Centralization, efficiency and savings in ICT management
  • Customer relations and internal collaboration models
  • Insights and big data monitoring

Mobile devices

  • Customization and customer service centers
  • Improved experience through innovative models
  • Infrastructures and access

The Internet of Things

  • Smart destinations
  • Automation of products and services
  • Innovative experiences for niche markets

Social networks and the sharing economy

  • Customer communication and relationships channel
  • Online reputation and active listening
  • Specialized social media
  • Exchange of goods and services between companies and individuals

The objective of public institutions is to diversify the industry in order to expand the offer to tourists seeking other alternatives to sun and beaches.

Inland tourism in Spain is a business niche yet to develop. It is an upmarket industry associated with gastronomy and culture that attracts medium to high- spending visitors. Especially interesting is wine tourism, which has great potential given the allure of the sector in Spain.

While local and provincial administrations devote resources to promote it, in fact, the wine industry is highly atomized and lacks agents to coordinate and organize activities, therefore the level of business that drives this type of tourism is well below its potential. 

Spain has an established position as a destination for mice tourism (meetings, incentives, conferences and exhibitions) thanks to the country's professionalism, stability and security. Spain attracted over 10 million MICE travelers in 2023, generating an industry turnover of 13.367 billion euros.

It ranks third in world destinations with the highest meeting participation according to the International Congress and Convention Association (ICCA). In 2022 there were over 5,712 events in Spain.

Spain’s primary advantage is that it perfectly combines business and leisure ("bleisure") tourism,  but in order to maintain this position, the industry has to quickly adapt to the changes in mice tourism trends, the increase of specialization, technological innovation and continuous advancement of customized meetings.

The most popular destinations for business tourism in Spain are Barcelona and Madrid, followed by Valencia, Sevilla, Málaga and Palma. 

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The post-pandemic evolution of the tourism sector in spain.

The year 2020 was marked by the economic and social impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, and the Spanish territory was no exception. Now, two years later, do you know how the tourism sector is doing in Spain? Read on to find out how it is evolving!

Effects of the Pandemic on the Tourism Sector in Spain 2020

COVID-19 infections and travel restrictions have had negative consequences throughout the country, both in the health sector and in tourism. The percentage of tourists was reduced by about 77% during 2020.

Likewise, during the months of July and August 2020, tourist activity was estimated at barely 20%, even dropping to 10%, while hotel occupancy could not even reach 50% of its maximum capacity.

On the other hand, Social Security enrollment in December 2020 registered a 13.7% drop, not to mention that tourism entrepreneurs’ estimates implied at least two years of decline in the level of turnover.

In order to reduce the number of infected people and deaths latent in the pandemic, mobility restrictions were one of the most important measures to be taken during most of the year.

In this sense, the decision also had a negative impact on the tourism sector in Spain, as it caused a drop in air traffic of passengers wishing to enter the country.

You may also be interested in: Requirements for travel to Spain [2022].

And what do the statistics say?

According to Statista, a total of 76 million passengers were witnessed during 2020, compared to the 275 million recorded in 2019, representing an economic blow to Spain after six straight years of tourism growth.

With regard to the entry of tourists by air, we can mention a drop of around 80% and a greater impact on the major Spanish airports such as Palma Mallorca, Barcelona El Prat and Elche-Alicante.

The annual record of tourists to Spain did not reach 19 million in 2020, with the United Kingdom being one of the coming destinations with the highest impact of about 82.4% less than in 2019.

Finally, we cannot forget the impact on the hotel sector during the pandemic, while some remained open to accommodate workers fighting the virus, many others chose not to open their doors to the general public.

In addition, travel agencies in Spain suffered a year-on-year reduction of 74.5%, and a loss of at least 9,000 jobs was estimated for the date.

You may also be interested in: Basic guide to sightseeing in Spain

The recovery of Spanish tourism: relevant figures

We cannot deny the strong impact that COVID-19 had on Spain. However, now that we are in a post-pandemic era, the estimates are much better and a recovery in Spanish tourism can be noted.

evolution of tourism in spain

According to SiteMinder’s World Hotel Index Organization, Spain is one of the countries currently showing the best tourism development, ranking ahead of the global average.

Thus, the tourism sector in Spain is driven by an increase in hotel occupancy in 2022, with the volume of bookings being 106% higher than in the pre-pandemic period.

This fact is accompanied by other indicators that contribute to the recovery in Spain, such as the increase in the arrival of international tourists to the country. During the recent month of July and August (2022), airline ticket bookings turned around and exceeded 20 million.

Similarly, in March 2022, for example, at least 4 million tourists were received, which means an increase of 72% compared to what was obtained before the pandemic.

The Minister of Industry, Trade and Tourism, Reyes Maroto, affirms that this year has seen a consolidation in the recovery of the tourism sector in Spain and that, moreover, it is expected to continue to intensify in the remainder of the year.

Likewise, the Easter season in this April 2022 represented a positive climate in the Spanish hospitality industry, with air capacity exceeding 29 million euros during the months of April to July.

In the case of the United Kingdom as an issuer of tourists to Spain, there is also a favorable change for the economy and the recovery of the sector. Thus, in March 2022, Spain received 827,000 travelers from this destination.

On the other hand, we continue to speak of a tourism evolution when analyzing the expenditure made by tourists, after the restrictions established in Spain that strongly slowed down the income of this sector.

In this sense, according to the National Institute of Statistics, the interest of foreign travelers in taking Spain into account as a tourist, vacation or business destination can be noted.

Thus, the average expenditure of tourists received in March 2022 is estimated at 1,257 euros, which translates into an annual increase of 13.6%, above that obtained in 2019. Similarly, total spending exceeded 5,000 million and reached 84% more with respect to pre-pandemic levels.

You may also be interested in: Can a foreigner drive in Spain?

Spain’s tourism potential is picking up again, after the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic. So, if you are thinking of visiting the country for tourism, recreational or business purposes, visit our blog first and find out more news about Spain this 2022.

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Please note you do not have access to teaching notes, mapping the evolution of tourism research: the spanish case.

Journal of Historical Research in Marketing

ISSN : 1755-750X

Article publication date: 14 December 2023

Issue publication date: 15 February 2024

This study aims to appraise the historical evolution of tourism research focused on Spain. Firstly, an analysis was conducted to assess the production and impact of research within this domain. Secondly, scientific mapping, specifically through co-word analysis, was used to identify and explore the principal research themes and their evolution in the field.


A historical approach was adopted in this study, using 1,100 bibliographic records obtained from the Scopus database. Science mapping was then conducted through co-word analysis of bibliographic data.

The results of the performance analysis provide insights into the volume, evolution and impact of the scientific documents published within the research area under investigation. Moreover, by adopting a longitudinal approach, science mapping through co-word analysis enables the definition of the intellectual structure within this research domain. In this regard, the main research themes are identified, conceptually assessed, and their evolution is examined across three distinct window periods: an initial research period (1972–2002), a growing research period (2003–2012) and a consolidation period (2013–2022).


The study provides a state-of-the-art position on tourism research related to Spain thus guiding future studies in the area. Furthermore, this study provides a comprehensive “snapshot” of the historical progression of tourism research in Spain, capturing the emblematic aspects that have emerged within the area over the investigated time period.

  • Historical research methods
  • Science mapping
  • Co-word analysis

Martínez-Navarro, J. , Campayo-Sánchez, F. and Ostrovskaya Fedorova, L. (2024), "Mapping the evolution of tourism research: the Spanish case", Journal of Historical Research in Marketing , Vol. 16 No. 1, pp. 96-121.

Emerald Publishing Limited

Copyright © 2023, Emerald Publishing Limited

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A comparative study of the evolution of tourism policy in Spain and Portugal

Profile image of Fernando Almeida García

The purposes of this study are to analyze and compare the way in which tourism policy has evolved in Spain and Portugal. Our study covers an extensive period of time, enabling the similarities and differences between the two processes and the effects of the main factors involved to be highlighted phase by phase. We start by looking at the genesis of tourism authorities, whose principal objective was to promote the countries and improve their external image. We will then see how the onset of mass tourism led to changes in strategy, which now sought to maximize revenue in order to fund national development. The third phase will deal with the restructuring of the countries' respective tourism authorities, whereby policies and planning were tailored to accommodate the changes that had occurred in the sector. We will conclude by suggesting a series of topics for debate, notably the Latin model of tourism development.

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evolution of tourism in spain

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Given its paramount relevance for Spanish economic policy and following several theoretical and methodological recommendations that arise from the study of policy change (Capano, 2009), this work focuses on a case study of the dynamics in tourism policy in Spain. Throughout the entirety of this work, we use a historical time-span to facilitate our analysis of Spanish tourism policy over the long-term. In the first part, we describe the basic elements and facts that define this policy and its specific policy arena. In the second part we will analyze several changes that occur during this time-span, and we will describe how these changes have affected public policy on several levels of analysis: a) the definition of this policy area, b) the structure and content of its policy agenda, c) the programmatic contents (and their policy instruments) and d) the policy implementation tools and procedures. Finally, assuming that the causes of those changes may have multiple origins and are mult...

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The evolution of tourism in Spain. The case study of Benidorm (Alicante) - Ana Espinosa Seguí Human Geography Department

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A history of Spain and it’s tourist evolution

  • 3 years ago

evolution of tourism in spain

“I would sooner be a foreigner in Spain than in most countries. How easy it is to make friends in Spain!” – George Orwell

From the early days of Visigothic rule, during the medieval period, to today’s vibrant and ever-popular tourist destination, Spain can weave a striking tapestry of rich history. With its influences stretching across the oceans, Europe’s Southernmost territory has, itself, developed from a hotchpotch of various rules and cultures throughout the ages. If we are to focus on the successes of Spain as a tourist destination, it is important to take a brief look at the early history of this remarkable kingdom, and from where its many customs and influences originate.

Spain’s story begins around 200 BC, when it is initially under Roman rule. The Roman name for this nation is Hispania, hence the etymology of the word Espana can clearly be seen. We can then fast forward to the 6th century, when the Visigoth king, Euric, set about extending his territory Southwards from the Pyrenees mountain range. By the next century, Spain is under complete Visigoth rule, with its capital city of Toledo being situated in the centre of the country. Not long after the establishment of this kingdom, the Visigoths are driven from Toledo, and indeed, lose power to Arabic tribes who have made the short journey by sea from the Northern tip of Africa. The first stable period to speak of is under Umayyad rule, when Prince Abd-al-Rahman establishes Spain as a major Muslim civilisation. During this period, the Southern city of Cordoba becomes a formidable and revered city of the middle ages. The distinguished Mosque – La Mezquita – that was built under Abd-al-Rahman’s rule, still stands today, and although somewhat changed, since the Renaissance period, it remains a notable tourist attraction.

After much political and regional upheaval between Muslim and Christian forces, Spain had been conquered and reigned over by both Germanic and Moorish rulers, throughout the middle ages. Taking centuries for a major period of stability, It was as late as the 15th century that the long-awaited reconquest finally arrived, through the marriage of Catholic Monarchs, Isabella and Ferdinand. In 1492, the Moors were defeated with the fall of their final stronghold of Granada, and Spain was re-established as a Christian kingdom, albeit with much Moorish influence that survives to this day, particularly in architecture. Coinciding with the fall of Granada, we see the initial rise of the infamous Spanish Inquisition, during a time of religious intolerance where the persecution of Jews and Muslims was used to drive out or forcibly convert them to Catholicism. It is believed that approximately 3000 people were executed in the name of the Inquisition.

The reign of Ferdinand and Isabella led to the birth of a new Spain, one which went on to become a colonial empire. It is during this period of history that Spain’s linguistic and cultural legacy, particularly in South America, was initiated. Today, there are in excess of 500 million Spanish speakers, due to those first forays into new lands by the Kingdom of Spain and her people. Christopher Columbus is perhaps the most well-known figure of this age. In fact, his reaching of the Americas was around the same time as the fall of Granada, and the return to Christian rule. Notably, the revered Spanish Armada was birthed during this early-modern era; a fleet of ships that attempted an unsuccessful invasion of England. It is widely accepted that this period of Spain’s history is one of phenomenal success, a time when it was regarded to be Europe’s most powerful Kingdom, and indeed, a world power for well over a further century.

Looking towards more modern times and the dawn of a fledgling tourist destination, we initially see the Spanish civil war taking place between 1936 and 1939. It was in 1939 that General Franco, a dictator and conservative, took the title of: Caudillo of Spain – a military landowner who exercised political power through totalitarian authority; Spain was now a dictatorship. It wasn’t until 1975, after the death of Franco, that, backed by Spanish constitution, King Juan Carlos took the throne, and democracy was restored. The beginnings of a tourist industry could now begin to flourish, and flourish they did; today, Spain is ranked second in the world, in terms of being a foreign tourist destination. With millions of visitors in 2015, it was globally the third most-visited country.

Regarding the importance of tourism to Spain’s economy, the industry generates 11% of the country’s GDP, making it a major and important boon to Spanish society. As it stands, alongside some of Spain’s recent economic difficulties, tourism continues to flourish, and is therefore a precious and significantly vital commodity. Initially, it was General Franco, himself, who pioneered the tourism boom, by revoking the need to obtain a visa to enter the country. The devaluation of the peseta was also a contributing factor, driving down the cost for those wishing to visit Spain. Mass tourism was born, and with the upcoming advent of package holidays, Spain was in the driving seat, ready to cash in on its vast unspoiled coastlines, and bustling towns.

“Spain is Different”. This slogan was the original tag line, and utilised under Franco’s rule, to promote the country as a popular destination for holidays and breaks. It certainly proved to be successful giving rise to a 40% increase in visitors, taking the total to around 4 million. Success continued to rise at a phenomenal rate, and by 1975, foreign visitors numbered around 30 million. The peaceful fishing villages dotted along the lingering coastline were beginning to develop into family-friendly resorts, boosting local economies and further funding the rise of hotels and new resorts. One fishing village in particular enjoyed a staggering rise from what it was back then, to what it has become now. Benidorm was perhaps the original blueprint for developing a sleepy village into a renowned holiday mega-resort. It is a fantastic case study to take a look at, as one can almost trace the entire evolution of Spain’s tourist industry through this single location’s journey to the top.

In the 18th century, Benidorm, on the Eastern coast of Spain, was renowned for its fishermen who were regarded as the best in the country. Tuna was a particularly sought-after fish, and the success of the local fishing industry in supplying large amounts of it, made for a strong economy. This success further strengthened the village, when sailors and captains would set up base in Benidorm for the purposes of shipbuilding and repairs. With the decline of the local fishing industry in the 1950’s, the local authorities decided to focus on the development of tourism in the area. Firstly, avenues of small hotels were built, and native Spanish tourists began taking holidays there. This soon expanded to include holidaymakers from Britain, Germany, and Holland. Being a resort on the Costa Blanca, the most significant development that triggered Benidorm’s rise was the opening of Alicante airport in 1967.

Over the next ten years, modern jet airplanes were continually developed, enabling an increase in air traffic for leisure reasons. The affordability of taking a flight to another country was now within reach of many families, and with a local airport, Benidorm, and the Costa Blanca, was booming. In 1977, Benidorm set a record that still stands today, an astonishing 12 million visitors in one year. For a former fishing village, with a population of around 60,000, this figure was clearly a testament to the astounding success of the plans set in motion 20 years earlier. Today, Benidorm continues to welcome millions of tourists every year. It is home to countless high-rise hotels, one of which is the tallest in Europe. With a reputation for sunshine, on-the-beach fun, and affordable nightlife in its many bars and clubs, cabaret being a major attraction, it remains extremely popular with holidaymakers from various countries.

The various Costas, or coasts, of Spain have been an origin to many a holiday-destination search. Each one comprises a collection a resorts and cities, and usually a local airport. As well as Costa Blanca, which we have already taken a look at, such original growth was paralleled in the Costa Brava, a region that includes Barcelona, a major magnet for tourism in its own right. The area was earmarked for major development as a tourism hotspot in the 1950s. With the success of Benidorm in mind, many towns and villages on this Mediterranean coast were developed much like their Costa Blanca counterpart. Notably, these resorts were Tossa de Mar, Lloret de Mar, and Blanes. Served by Girona airport, built in 1965, the Costa Brava is another significant example of former fishing-industry-focused towns and villages changing direction to take advantage of the riches of tourism. In the early 2000s, budget airline, Ryanair, selected Girona as one of its major European hubs, greatly enhancing the amount of air traffic to the area.

Spain’s warm climate has played a major role in the success of its tourist industry. As well as the mainland, there are also the Balearic Islands of Majorca, Menorca, and Ibiza, which are all major tourist destinations. For those looking to take holidays in the cooler winter months, Spain can also offer the year-round warmth of the Canary Islands, an archipelago off Africa’s West coast. The Canaries’ triumph as a Spanish holiday destination began around the same time as the boom started in mainland Spain. Firstly with Franco’s plans to open the proverbial doors to tourists, and secondly, with the advent of modern air travel. The islands of Tenerife, Gran Canaria, and Lanzarote in particular took great advantage of the opportunities that the mainland was enjoying. A great success in their own right, these tiny islands successfully welcome approximately 9 million tourists each year, contributing to Spain’s continuously impressive tourist industry.

Although the major pull of Spain’s tourist industry is predominantly beach and resort destinations, marketed as package holidays, city breaks and cultural tours have grown in stature over the past 25 years. In 1992, the historic capital city of Catalonia – Barcelona, opened its doors to the world when it hosted the Olympic Games. The billions of dollars that the month-long event generated led to further development of the city and its infrastructure. The Olympic village was key to the city developing the area around the sea, which in turn facilitated many local hotels, that had previously been run-down, to be renovated and modernised. In effect, the games were a major factor in the unsurpassed growth of Barcelona as a city. Subsequently, it became one of Europe’s most visited cities, alongside London, Rome, and Paris. To this day, Barcelona’s location on the Costa Brava has contributed to the continuing growth of tourism in the region.

As we can see, from medieval times, to its modern day status as a tourist industry superpower, Spain has grown from feudal beginnings, into a major travel destination. It has overcome civil war and dictatorship, to become one of the planet’s biggest sociological influences. By utilising its natural beauty, developing its cities and coastline, and promoting its culture, Spain has ensured its economic evolution, which is still sustained to this day. In 2015, over 54 million foreign visitors entered Spanish territories. 30 million of these travellers came from the nearby countries of France, Germany, and the UK. The World Economic forum, in 2015, published the Travel and Tourism Competitive Index, in which Spain ranked number-one out of 141 countries of the world, with regard to the power of their respective tourism industries. Generally, the Spanish people, being mindful of the economic importance of visitors, provide a warm welcome to tourists and holidaymakers, on their shores. The deep history of the integration of different races and nationalities, coupled with the creation of various colonies and societies has influenced the Spaniards into becoming a tolerant, warm, and welcoming people. That alone is a good reason why so many people enjoy taking annual holidays in this beautiful and quite striking country, time and again.

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Jun 6, 2024 | Apparel & Shoes

Adidas, nike & puma revenue comparison 2006-2023.

The statistic shows the global revenues of the sporting goods companies Nike, Adidas and Puma from 2006 to 2023. That year, the adidas Group generated over 21 billion euros in revenue. The biggest apparel brand in the world The global sports apparel market is highly fragmented, with basic discount brands to high-end fashion name brands competing for market position. U.S.-based Nike is the world’s leading brand in athletic footwear and apparel, and the world's most valuable clothing brand in general. Nike has a higher global revenue than its main competitors, adidas and Puma, put together. North America is a key market for Nike, as close to half of its global revenue is generated there each year. Much of Nike's success can be attributed to the brand’s marketing campaign as well as sponsorship agreements with celebrity athletes and professional sports teams. Adidas and Puma Adidas and Puma used to be one company named Gebrüder Dassler Schuhfabrik, established by two brothers, Adolf and Rudolf Dassler. After a disagreement between the two brothers, the company split, creating the two widely known sporting brands, Adidas and Puma. Adidas is the largest sportswear manufacturer in Europe, and the second largest in the world, just behind Nike, with a brand value of approximately 15.7 billion U.S. dollars. Just as with Nike, footwear is the most important category for adidas. In 2023, over 50 percent of the adidas Group's net sales were generated by the footwear category . Puma, also one of the globe's leading sporting goods brand, has the long-term mission of becoming the most desirable sport lifestyle company in the world. Europe and the Americas are the most profitable markets for Puma, as these regions accounted for about 80 percent of Puma’s consolidated sales . Describing itself as the 'blue mountains', Puma has been trying to incorporate more edge, creativity, and uniqueness into their designs with their collaborations with celebrities and fashion designers. This is a common strategy amongst these leading sports brands, as they aim to maintain their share of the market by broadening their product lines.

Jun 10, 2024 | Mobile Devices

Share of smartphone subscribers in the united states by manufacturer 2013-2024.

Apple, Samsung and LG are the leading smartphone OEMs (Original Equipment Manufacturers) in the United States as of March 2024. Apple holds the highest market share with 53.1 percent, a slight decrease from their share in January 2024. Consistent growth in global smartphone users     The number of smartphone users worldwide has consistently increased in recent years. This growth in smartphone users is forecast to continue , reaching over 7.5 billion by 2026. The coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak was forecasted to reduce the global smartphone unit shipments in 2020. At the end of 2020, it was possible to see that the number of smartphone units shipped in 2020 had decreased compared to previous years. However, smartphone shipment reached its peak in 2016 and has steadily declined since.

Jun 10, 2024 | Prices, Marketing, and Trade

Diesel fuel retail prices per month in the u.s. 2022-2024.

In May 2024, one gallon of diesel cost an average of 3.82 U.S. dollars in the United States. That was a decrease compared to the previous month, and also lower than the same month the year prior. 

Diesel prices rose significantly throughout the last two years due to supply constraints in the wake of the Russia-Ukraine war and transportation issues related to low water levels on the Mississippi river. Global supply constraints also resulted in the West Texas Intermediate price trading at decade highs.

The usage of distillate fuel oil began in the 1930s, but until further development in the 1960s, diesel vehicles were mostly applied to commercial use only. In the U.S., diesel-powered cars remain a fairly small portion of the automobile market and diesel consumption is far lower than gasoline consumption. In general, gasoline also tends to be more widely available than diesel fuel and usually sells for a lower retail price . However, diesel engines have better fuel economy than gasoline engines, and, as such, tend to be used for large commercial vehicles.

Jun 11, 2024 | Electricity

Household electricity prices in africa 2024, by country.

Cabo Verde recorded the highest electricity price for households in Africa. As of March 2024, one kilowatt-hour costs around 0.31 U.S. dollars in the country. Kenya and Mali followed, with households paying 0.22 U.S. dollars per kilowatt-hour. Rwanda, Burkina Faso, Gabon, and Togo also recorded higher prices for electricity on the continent. On the other hand, Angola, Ethiopia, and Sudan registered the lowest prices for electric energy in Africa.

Jun 3, 2024 | Office

Vacancy rate of cbd office market australia q1 2024, by city.

In the first quarter of 2024, the office vacancy rate in the central business district of Melbourne, Australia, was the highest, with a rate of around 18 percent. The central business district of Sydney had an office vacancy rate of 14.3 percent in comparison.

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    evolution of tourism in spain

  2. Tourism 2

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  3. The evolution of tourism in Spain. The case study of Benidorm (Alicante

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  4. The evolution of tourism in Spain The case

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  5. A.1. Evolution of tourism in spain by Leticia Delgado

    evolution of tourism in spain

  6. The evolution of tourism in Spain The case

    evolution of tourism in spain


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  1. Tourism in Spain

    Tourism sector in Spain - statistics & facts. Spain is an established tourism market in Europe - the region with the most tourist arrivals worldwide - and globally. In 2022, Spain registered ...

  2. Spain

    Tourism is one of the main sectors of Spain's economy and is an outstanding driver of socio-economic development. In 2019, the total effects of tourism (direct and indirect) contributed EUR 155 billion or 12.4% of total GDP. The sector provided 13.5% of total employment. Following the COVID-19 pandemic, tourism's total contribution to GDP ...

  3. Development and importance of tourism for Spain

    Development of the tourism sector in Spain from 1995 to 2021 The following chart shows the number of tourist arrivals registered in Spain each year. Until 2005, tourists were defined as anyone who spent at least one night in the country but did not live there for longer than 12 months. Since 2006, same-day-visitors from neighboring countries ...

  4. Tourism in Spain

    Tourism in Spain is a major contributor to national economic life, contributing to about 11.8% of Spain's GDP ... It illustrates the evolution of the called "minor arts" (furniture, ceramics and glass, textile, etc.). Its 60 rooms expones 15,000 objects, of the approximate 40,000 which it has.

  5. Spain

    Sustainable and inclusive tourism development demands a greater degree of innovation in the use of big data, digitalisation and smart tourism destinations. Recently, Spain has begun to prepare a new Strategy of Sustainable Tourism for 2030. The aim is to transform Spanish tourism towards a model of both sustained and sustainable growth to ...

  6. Life cycles, stages and tourism history: The Catalonia (Spain

    Abstract. To date, most analysis on the historic development of tourism has been limited to observing its evolution through a single Life Cycle identified with the mass tourism stage. However, many of the major destinations have a much longer history and seem to have passed through different consecutive Life Cycles related to different stages.

  7. A comparative study of the evolution of tourism policy in Spain and

    The evolution of tourism policy can be divided into the three main stages related to major socio-economic phases identified in this study (see Table 1 and Appendix 1 Phases of tourism policy in Spain and Portugal. Key issues and common factors. Source: Elaborated by author, Appendix 2 Development of tourism in Spain and Portugal (1950-1975).

  8. REGIONAL TOURISM PLANNING IN SPAIN: Evolution and Perspectives

    The evolution of tourism policy and planning in Spain may be divided into five distinct phases ( Table 2 ), taking into account the changes operating in the political and socioeconomic context, in the evolution of the industry, in the policy objectives and in the planning approaches. Indicative Planning (1959-1974).

  9. The Nature of Spain's International Cultural Tourism throughout the

    Since the global economic and financial crisis of 2008, tourism has taken up a central position in the recovery of Spain's severely damaged economy. If the first years after the recession signaled a considerable decline of the tourism sector, the later years in which those countries with the highest numbers of outgoing tourists to Spain had recovered, consolidated the tourism sector as one ...

  10. The evolution of Spain as a tourist destination

    Tourism development and sustainability can coexist if there is right strategic planning, and the long experience of Spain have take us to develop a qualitative analysis of all the promotional ...

  11. Spanish tourism excellence: Sustainability

    Pre-pandemic, Spain was the second-largest tourism destination in the world, drawing 84 million visitors in 2019 who brought over €92 billion in revenue. 1 Travel and tourism accounted for around 14 percent of Spain's total GDP and provided one in eight jobs. In some communities, tourism contributed to over 20 percent of all economic activity.

  12. Tourist Development in Spain

    Tourism is still important and. maintained a high growth rate up to 1980, since when it has slowed. The number of. visitors entering Spain rose from 17.86 million in 1967 to 41.26 million in 1983. Hotel and. similar accommodation rose from 541,000 places in 1967 to 835,000 in 1983. But the.

  13. Tourism and leisure industry in Spain

    Spain has broken its record in number of international visitors: thanks to the more than 85 million tourists arriving in Spain, every year it is recognized as the second most visited country in the world, after France. The United States and Italy follow. Spain's success in the tourism industry is due especially to its rich cultural and natural attractions, but also to its exceptional ...

  14. The post-pandemic evolution of the tourism sector in Spain

    According to SiteMinder's World Hotel Index Organization, Spain is one of the countries currently showing the best tourism development, ranking ahead of the global average. Thus, the tourism sector in Spain is driven by an increase in hotel occupancy in 2022, with the volume of bookings being 106% higher than in the pre-pandemic period.

  15. Regional Tourism planning in Spain: evolution and perspectives

    The planning scale used in this paper is defined by Josep Ivars is Doctor in Geography. He is a researcher in the Tourism School at the Alicante University (PO Box 99, 03080 Alicante, Spain. Email <[email protected]>) and Associate Lecturer in the Geographical Analysis Department. His current research interests focus on tourism planning, policy ...

  16. Mapping the evolution of tourism research: the Spanish case

    Purpose. This study aims to appraise the historical evolution of tourism research focused on Spain. Firstly, an analysis was conducted to assess the production and impact of research within this domain. Secondly, scientific mapping, specifically through co-word analysis, was used to identify and explore the principal research themes and their ...

  17. (PDF) A comparative study of the evolution of tourism policy in Spain

    From the central government, the institutional promotion of tourism has played an important role in the development of tourism in Spain and undoubtedly has contributed to the achievement of the leader position that Spain has as a tourist destination. This institutional promotion had an early beginning and a strong growth with the creation of an ...

  18. The evolution of tourism in Spain. The case study of Benidorm (Alicante

    Before the 1950s, 1939: End of Crisis of spa Benidorm was a the Spanish tourism focused fishermen village. Civil War on high classes 1950: National 1939-1975: After the Second tourism started in Franco's World War: the village Dictatorship in economic recovery Spain in the bulk of 1952: One of the Western European biggest tuna 1953: countries that fishery was closed Agreements provoked mass ...

  19. PDF A comparative study of the evolution of tourism policy in Spain and

    development at both national and regional levels (Hillali, 2007, Jenkins, 1980, Lamb, 1998 and Williams and Shaw, 1988). In the case of Spain and Portugal, there have

  20. A history of Spain and it's tourist evolution

    It is a fantastic case study to take a look at, as one can almost trace the entire evolution of Spain's tourist industry through this single location's journey to the top. In the 18th century, Benidorm, on the Eastern coast of Spain, was renowned for its fishermen who were regarded as the best in the country. Tuna was a particularly sought ...

  21. The Evolution of Tourism in Spain. The Case Study of Benidorm ...

    benidorm_evolution - Free download as PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. Benidorm, Spain evolved from a small fishing village to a major tourism destination due to several factors: (1) The closure of the local tuna fishery in 1952 prompted the development of tourism. (2) The first general development plan in 1956 envisioned Benidorm as a tourism-focused town.

  22. Evolution of tourism in Spain timeline

    The "Boom" of the tourism in Spain started at 1959, when the tourism was considered as an important way of development of the country. It increases during the 60's with the indiscriminate building of hotels, apartments etc. that gave place to a situation of speculation with no plannification; and this situation made Spain to be in a massive tourism destination.

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    [email protected]. Tel. +1 212 419-5774. Mon - Fri, 9am - 6pm (EST) Find statistics, consumer survey results and industry studies from over 22,500 sources on over 60,000 topics on the internet's ...